Online Accommodations Bibliography

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The Online Accommodations Bibliography allows users to search a compilation of empirical research studies on the effects of various testing accommodations for students with disabilities. The studies included in the bibliography are those previously summarized in Tindal, G. & Fuchs, L.S. (1999) A Summary of Research on Test Changes: An Empirical Basis for Defining Testing Accommodations, as well as additional research studies presented or published in more recent years. Plans are underway to include similar studies on students with limited English proficiency.

You can search the bibliography for specific accommodation research studies by typing in keywords related to the accommodation, disability, test content area, or student age. Brief summaries of each study are provided, and include information on the accommodation, participants, dependent variable, and major findings of the study. There are currently 193 documents in the bibliography, covering the years 1931-2002. For more information on how the studies where chosen for this bibliography, see Method for Identifying Accommodation Studies.

[This database was organized and developed by Sara Bolt and Martha Thurlow]


Type the keyword or author in the box following "Text to search for," then click on the button "Search."  The results of your search will be displayed. To view the entire record for an individual citation, click on "Detail."

You can place check marks in individual citations, then choose to view your marked list.  For a complete list of keywords used in the bibliography, see the list below.


The following are definitions for certain categories:

College Entrance Test: ACT, SAT, GRE, MCAT, etc.

Multiple Content: Some or all of the results are given without differentiating results for specific content areas of the test (e.g. math, reading, writing).

Multiple Disabilities: Some or all of the results are given without differentiating results for students with specific disabilities (e.g. learning disability, mental retardation, visually impaired).

Multiple Age: Some or all of the results are given without differentiating results for students of particular ages (elementary, middle school, high school, etc.).

Multiple Accommodations: The study involved students using a combination of accommodations, or did not differentiate some or all of the results for students using different accommodations.

No Age: The ages of participants in the study are not provided.

No Disability: Study included primarily students without disabilities as participants. Specific results for students with disabilities are not provided.

Teacher Survey: A survey study of educators’ perceptions and/or use of accommodations.

The following are description of abstracts (Summaries)

Each accommodation study is summarized according to four main areas:

  1. Accommodation-A description of the accommodation studied
  2. Participants-A description of those who participated in the study (number of participants, grade, gender, race, disability status, etc.)
  3. Dependent Variable-A description of the specific test that was accommodated and other dependent variables used in the study
  4. Findings-A description of the major findings of the study

Keyword List


Clarify directions
Computer administration
Examiner familiarity
Interpreter for instructions
Large print
Read aloud
Read directions
Signed administration
Simplified language
Student read aloud
Visual cues

Presentation Equipment
Audio cassette
Colored lenses
Computer administration
Physical supports
Screen display
Technological aid
Video cassette

Computer administration
Dictated response
Mark answer in test booklet
Speech recognition system
Tape recorder
Signed response
Verbalized problem-solving

Extended time
Multiple day
Test breaks

Small group
Specialized setting

Middle school
High school
Multiple ages
No age

College entrance test
Intelligence test
Language arts
Multiple content
Readiness test
Social studies

Attention problem
Emotional/Behavioral disability
Hearing impaired
Learning disability
Mental retardation
Multiple disabilities
No disability
Physical disability
Speech/Language disability
Tourette’s syndrome
Visually impaired

Other Terms Used
Multiple accommodations
Out-of-level testing
Teacher survey

Online Accommodations Bibliography

Image of the Online Accommodations Bibliography Web Site

This document is provided for the user's convenience.  Inclusion does not constitute an endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any views, products or services offered or expressed.